Standard accounts of language policy and language planning tend to portray language users all too often as the ?passive receivers? of linguistic decisions taken at the higher levels of state organization. Conversely, those who are supposed to ?live? the language policies never really appear to submissively ?implement? them, but, appropriating them, steer them in novel, unforeseen directions through their everyday language practices and their discursive perceptions and interpretations of linguistic realities. It is these dialectic processes of interaction between what is designed from above and how it is responded to from below which give shape to societies? overall patterns of multilingualism. Multilingualism from below resulted from the Second International MIDP Symposium, ?Multilingualism from below?, held in Antwerp (Belgium) from 14 to 16 September 2009, and hosted jointly by the University of Antwerp, the University of the Free State (South Africa) and the University of Ghent (Belgium). The symposium comprised part of the MIDP colloquia series sponsored by the Province of Antwerp, and brought together several scholars from Africa, America and Europe, as well as from South Africa. The selected papers included in this, the eighth volume in the Van Schaik series, ?Studies in Language Policy in South Africa?, critically refl ect on themes such as multilingualism and agency; multilingualism and language ideology construction; the management of multilingualism, etc. The diversity of the contributions to this volume underscores the fact that the construction of multilingualism is a complex process of dialectical exchange between top-down and bottom-up actors. Decision making and implementation by agents at grass roots level are affected by nonexplicit language ideologies, impacting on the fl uidity of both individual and societal multilingualism. In light of this, researchers need to adapt their research approach when investigating language practices on grass roots level. This includes a careful consideration of the concepts ?code switching? or ?code selection? from below. With Multilingualism from below, the editors hope to evoke further discussion on the themes covered in this volume, as well as the opinions expressed by its contributors. The book is particularly directed at readers interested in the intricate relations between language and society, but it can also be used effectively as an important reference work in courses in language policy and language planning with a South African, African, or global focus.
Chapter 1 Postcolonial ideologies of language in education: Voices from below on English and local language(s) in The Gambia Chapter 2 Multilingualism and language attitudes in the Xhariep district: The case of Kopanong Chapter 3 Teaching in a language limbo: Zambian primary teachers caught between policy and reality Chapter 4 A case study in multilingualism from below: How do schools put language policy into practice? Chapter 5 Mixed approach to multilingual language policy implementation: Insights from local government sphere in South Africa Chapter 6 Shaping Language Policy on the Ground: The Official Languages Act (2003) in Ireland Chapter 7 When a school principal does not believe in the impossible: From multilingual explorations to system-wide assessment Chapter 8 Multilingualism from below. Really? In South Africa? Chapter 9 On speaking multilanguages: Urban lingos and fluid multilingualism Chapter 10 La r?ponse des jeunes alg?riens, depuis les ann?es 80, ? la politique linguistique de leurs a?n?s, ? travers les n?ologismes hybrides arabo-fran?ais Chapter 11 De l?influence des repr?sentations linguistiques sur les politiques linguistiques (et inversement) Chapter 12 Afrikaans norms of spoken usage and the desirability of restandardizing Standard Afrikaans along ethnic lines
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